100 x Urine Test Strips for Infection Cystitis Testing Sticks, UTI, Nitrite, Leukocytes, 8 Parameter Urinalysis Multisticks

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100 x Urine Test Strips for Infection Cystitis Testing Sticks, UTI, Nitrite, Leukocytes, 8 Parameter Urinalysis Multisticks

100 x Urine Test Strips for Infection Cystitis Testing Sticks, UTI, Nitrite, Leukocytes, 8 Parameter Urinalysis Multisticks

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The blood reagent square indicates the amount of red blood cells, haemoglobin and myoglobin in the urine: a hot water bottle or hot wheat bag placed between your thighs or on your lower stomach can help ease discomfort or pain A standard urine test strip may comprise up to 10 different chemical pads or reagents which react (change color) when immersed in, and then removed from, a urine sample. The test can often be read in as little as 60 to 120 seconds after dipping, although certain tests require longer. Routine testing of the urine with multiparameter strips is the first step in the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases. The analysis includes testing for the presence of proteins, glucose, ketones, haemoglobin, bilirubin, urobilinogen, acetone, nitrite and leucocytes as well as testing of pH and specific gravity or to test for infection by different pathogens. [2]

You might also be interested in our collection of 900+ OSCE Stations, including a range of clinical procedure and data interpretation stations. Urobilinogen is a byproduct of bilirubin breakdown in the intestine and it is normally excreted in the urine: The presence of bilirubin in the urine suggests increased serum levels of conjugated bilirubin, which can occur in conditions such as biliary obstruction (e.g. pancreatic cancer). Leukocyte esterase is an enzyme produced by neutrophils and therefore, when positive, it indicates the presence of white cells in the urine:

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Concentrated urine can be the result of dehydration. When assessing specific gravity, environmental factors such as temperatures should be taken into account. Conclusion Substances that can cause cloudiness but are not harmful include mucus, sperm, prostatic fluid and skin cells. Other substances that make urine cloudy are white/red blood cells, pus or bacteria that need attention. Frothy urine signifies protein in the urine.

Your Kidneys and How They Work". National Kidney and Urological Disease Information Clearing House. 2007. Archived from the original on 2011-04-11 . Retrieved 2009-02-17. {{ cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= ( help) Causes of low specific gravity include conditions that result in the production of dilute urine such as diabetes insipidus and acute tubular necrosis. a b c Strasinger, Susan K.; Di Lorenzo Schaub, Marjorie (2008). "5". Análisis de orina y de los líquidos corporales (in Spanish) (5ªed.). Editorial panamericana. pp.74–75. ISBN 978-950-06-1938-7 . Retrieved 14 March 2012. Elevated protein concentrations produce slightly elevated specific density results as a consequence of the indicator's protein error; in addition, samples with a pH above 6.5 give lower readings as a result of the indicator's bias. For this reason the manufacturers recommend that 5 units are added to the specific gravity reading when the pH is greater than 6.5. [8] Blood [ edit ] English physician Richard Bright describes the clinical symptom of nephritis in “Reports of Medical Cases.”This is a measure of acidity or alkalinity in urine. All urine will give a pH reading on analysis and it is usually slightly acidic. A range of 5.0-8.0 is considered normal (Higgins, 2007). Acidic urine may indicate formation of urinary stones, while alkaline urine may indicate a UTI with certain types of bacteria, such as Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella or Pseudomonas (Higgins, 2007). However, pH is also affected by diet; a high protein intake can give rise to acidic urine, whereas a high intake of dairy products or vegetables can give rise to alkaline urine. UTIs and medication can also result in alkaline urine. Results should be interpreted in conjunction with an individual’s specific presentation. Specific gravity (SG) (relative density) In many cultures urine was once regarded as a mystical fluid, and in some cultures it is still regarded as such to this day. Its uses have included wound healing, stimulation of the body's defences, and examinations for diagnosing the presence of diseases. Use a fresh sample of urine (preferably less than 4 hours old or in line with the reagent strip manufacturer’s instructions to obtain accurate results. Bilirubin and urobilinogen are relatively unstable compounds when left in light or at room temperature; The color, odor and amount of urine can already indicate whether something is wrong. If, for instance, someone passes onlya little very dark urine, it could be a sign that they have not had enough to drink – or that their kidneys are no longer working properly. Cloudy or flaky urine could be a sign of a urinary tract infection. If the urine is reddish in color, there might be blood in it. To find out more, the urine needs to be tested using a test strip or in a lab.

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